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          ATT&CK-CN V1.01 Last Update: 2019-11 [返回索引頁]

          譯者: 林妙倩(清華大學網絡研究院網絡空間安全實習生)、戴亦侖(賽寧網安) 原創翻譯作品,如果需要轉載請取得翻譯作者同意。

          數據來源:ATT&CK Matrices

          原文: https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/T1134

          術語表: /attack/glossary

          篡改訪問令牌

          Windows使用訪問令牌來確定正在運行的進程的所有權。用戶可以操縱訪問令牌以使正在運行的進程看起來像它屬于啟動該進程的用戶以外的其他人。發生這種情況時,該過程還將采用與新令牌關聯的安全性上下文。例如,Microsoft提倡使用訪問令牌作為安全性最佳實踐。管理員應以標準用戶身份登錄,但使用內置訪問令牌操作命令以管理員權限運行其工具runas。

          攻擊者可以使用訪問令牌在不同的用戶或系統安全性上下文下進行操作,以執行操作并逃避檢測。攻擊者可以使用內置的Windows API函數來復制現有進程中的訪問令牌。這被稱為令牌竊取。對手必須已經在特權用戶上下文(即管理員)中才能竊取令牌。但是,攻擊者通常使用令牌竊取將其安全上下文從管理員級別提升到SYSTEM級別。如果帳戶對遠程系統具有適當的權限,則對手可以使用令牌作為該令牌的帳戶向遠程系統進行身份驗證。

          攻擊者可以通過以下三種方法來利用訪問令牌:

          Access Token Manipulation

          Windows uses access tokens to determine the ownership of a running process. A user can manipulate access tokens to make a running process appear as though it belongs to someone other than the user that started the process. When this occurs, the process also takes on the security context associated with the new token. For example, Microsoft promotes the use of access tokens as a security best practice. Administrators should log in as a standard user but run their tools with administrator privileges using the built-in access token manipulation command runas.[1]

          Adversaries may use access tokens to operate under a different user or system security context to perform actions and evade detection. An adversary can use built-in Windows API functions to copy access tokens from existing processes; this is known as token stealing. An adversary must already be in a privileged user context (i.e. administrator) to steal a token. However, adversaries commonly use token stealing to elevate their security context from the administrator level to the SYSTEM level. An adversary can use a token to authenticate to a remote system as the account for that token if the account has appropriate permissions on the remote system.

          Access tokens can be leveraged by adversaries through three methods:

          令牌模擬/盜竊 -對手創建一個新的訪問令牌,該令牌使用來復制現有令牌DuplicateToken(Ex)。然后可以將該令牌用于ImpersonateLoggedOnUser允許調用線程模擬已登錄用戶的安全上下文,或者SetThreadToken用于將模擬令牌分配給線程。當目標用戶在系統上具有非網絡登錄會話時,這很有用。

          Token Impersonation/Theft - An adversary creates a new access token that duplicates an existing token using DuplicateToken(Ex). The token can then be used with ImpersonateLoggedOnUser to allow the calling thread to impersonate a logged on user's security context, or with SetThreadToken to assign the impersonated token to a thread. This is useful for when the target user has a non-network logon session on the system.

          使用令牌創建流程 -對手DuplicateToken(Ex)使用CreateProcessWithTokenW來創建新的訪問令牌,并將其用于創建在模擬用戶的安全上下文下運行的新流程。這對于在其他用戶的安全上下文下創建新流程很有用。

          Create Process with a Token - An adversary creates a new access token with DuplicateToken(Ex) and uses it with CreateProcessWithTokenW to create a new process running under the security context of the impersonated user. This is useful for creating a new process under the security context of a different user.

          制作和模擬令牌 -對手具有用戶名和密碼,但用戶未登錄到系統。然后,對手可以使用該LogonUser功能為用戶創建登錄會話。該函數將返回新會話的訪問令牌的副本,并且對手可以SetThreadToken用來將令牌分配給線程。

          任何標準用戶都可以使用runas命令和Windows API函數來創建模擬令牌。它不需要訪問管理員帳戶。

          Metasploit的Meterpreter有效負載允許任意令牌操作,并使用令牌模擬來提升特權。Cobalt Strike信標有效載荷允許模擬任意令牌,也可以創建令牌。

          Make and Impersonate Token - An adversary has a username and password but the user is not logged onto the system. The adversary can then create a logon session for the user using the LogonUser function. The function will return a copy of the new session's access token and the adversary can use SetThreadToken to assign the token to a thread.

          Any standard user can use the runas command, and the Windows API functions, to create impersonation tokens; it does not require access to an administrator account.

          Metasploit’s Meterpreter payload allows arbitrary token manipulation and uses token impersonation to escalate privileges. The Cobalt Strike beacon payload allows arbitrary token impersonation and can also create token

          標簽

          ID編號: T1134

          策略: 繞過防御,提權

          平臺: Windows

          所需權限:user,administrator

          有效權限: SYSTEM

          數據源: API監測,訪問令牌,進程監測,命令行參數

          CAPEC ID: CAPEC-633

          緩解措施

          減輕 描述
          特權賬戶管理 (M1026) 限制權限,以便用戶和用戶組無法創建令牌。僅應為本地系統帳戶定義此設置。GPO:計算機配置> [策略]> Windows設置>安全設置>本地策略>用戶權限分配:創建令牌對象。還定義誰可以通過GPO為本地和網絡服務創建進程級別令牌:計算機配置> [策略]> Windows設置>安全設置>本地策略>用戶權限分配:替換進程級別令牌。
          用戶帳號管理 (M1018) 對手必須已經在本地系統上具有管理員級別的訪問權限,才能充分利用此技術。確保將用戶和帳戶限制為所需的最少特權。
          Mitigation Description
          Privileged Account Management (M1026) Limit permissions so that users and user groups cannot create tokens. This setting should be defined for the local system account only. GPO: Computer Configuration > [Policies] > Windows Settings > Security Settings > Local Policies > User Rights Assignment: Create a token object. Also define who can create a process level token to only the local and network service through GPO: Computer Configuration > [Policies] > Windows Settings > Security Settings > Local Policies > User Rights Assignment: Replace a process level token.
          User Account Management (M1018) An adversary must already have administrator level access on the local system to make full use of this technique; be sure to restrict users and accounts to the least privileges they require.

          檢測

          如果對手使用的是標準命令行shell,則分析人員可以通過審核命令行活動來檢測令牌操縱。具體地說,分析人員應尋找該runas命令的使用。Windows默認情況下不啟用詳細的命令行日志記錄。

          如果對手使用直接調用Windows令牌API的有效負載,則分析人員只能通過仔細分析用戶網絡活動,檢查運行的進程以及與其他端點和網絡行為的關聯來檢測令牌操縱。

          有效負載可以利用許多Windows API調用來操縱訪問令牌(例如LogonUser [,DuplicateTokenExImpersonateLoggedOnUser)。請參閱參考的Windows API頁面以獲取更多信息。

          查詢系統以獲取進程和線程令牌信息,并查找不一致之處,例如用戶擁有模擬本地SYSTEM帳戶的進程。

          If an adversary is using a standard command-line shell, analysts can detect token manipulation by auditing command-line activity. Specifically, analysts should look for use of the runas command. Detailed command-line logging is not enabled by default in Windows.

          If an adversary is using a payload that calls the Windows token APIs directly, analysts can detect token manipulation only through careful analysis of user network activity, examination of running processes, and correlation with other endpoint and network behavior.

          There are many Windows API calls a payload can take advantage of to manipulate access tokens (e.g., LogonUser, DuplicateTokenEx[, and ImpersonateLoggedOnUser). Please see the referenced Windows API pages for more information.

          Query systems for process and thread token information and look for inconsistencies such as user owns processes impersonating the local SYSTEM account.

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